Fisheries reform requires drastic action to help revert the alarming situation of fisheries worldwide. But for a reform to be politically viable, it is important to prepare the ground and improve transparency around subsidies and charges: Who benefits? Who is harmed? And who is left out? This toolkit focuses on fiscal fisheries management instruments, which governments use to influence economic decisions on government spending and raise revenue through taxation. They include taxes, charges and royalties — which governments use to discourage actions — and direct subsidies or tax breaks, which they use to encourage decisions linked to investments and consumption. When combined with regulations, fiscal instruments can play an important role in promoting inclusive environmental policy.